Artificial Intelligence (AI) promises huge in-process savings through transparency, higher yields through real-time monitoring and control, and back end savings as manufacturers migrate toward autonomous operations. But what does this all mean, and how do manufacturers prepare for these new opportunities? Companies hoping to achieve this Industry 4.0 level of manufacturing operation must address some important issues (1) how to build data driven thinking within the workforce; (2) how to identify goals for AI and then link these to the compute architecture; and (3) how to jump the ambition to execution gap? The challenge is a system of systems problem. It involves people, processes and technologies and no single vector will be sufficient to success.